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Major tips to help you start running like a pro

Table of Contents

Why should I start running?

There are plenty of good reasons! Here are a few to motivate you:

  • It helps improve cardiovascular health, reducing your risk cardiovascular disease by 45%
  • It makes your brain healthier, improves cognition and reverses cognitive and neural decline
  • It helps relieve stress
  • It improves sleep quality
  • It makes your bones stronger and improves motor skills
  • It boosts your confidence

How can running boost brain power?

Consider the facts:

  • An experimental study conducted at the University of Muenster (Germany) found immediate beneficial effects of running on cognition. You learn new information 20% faster after a run.
  • study by Jim McKenna from the University of Bristol showed that running improves work performance, time management, and mental sharpness. When your brain is performing at full capacity, you can focus, concentrate, and make better decisions – just what you need to be more productive and efficient.
  • 30-40 minutes of running stimulates the creation of new nerve cells and blood vessels in the brain, says Karen Postal, president of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology. This means running is good for your mental health as well.
  • Running promotes the release of endorphins that have effects similar to antidepressants. Running for over 20 minutes can reduce anxiety. You can also find that your outlook is more positive after a run and that things that were troubling you no longer feel so bad.

How to pick the right shoes for running?

According to Eric Tan, assistant professor of clinical orthopaedic surgery at the USC Department Orthopaedic Surgery of Keck Medicine of USC, the best shoe is one that makes your foot feel the most comfortable. Here are some other things to keep in mind:

  • Consider what type of running you will do
    Road or rail running? Road shoes are designed to support repetitive strikes on hard surfaces. Trail-running shoes have more tread and offer more traction for gripping rocks, mud and roots. If you do a lot of running, consider getting a high mileage shoe, which should have more cushion and support compared to shoes for shorter distances.
  • Define your running style
    Dr. Tan recommends looking at an old pair of shoes: Are the soles worn evenly? Is one side of the shoe more worn than the other? Is the padding on the inside worn away in areas? Over-pronators wear down the outside of the shoe first and need a motion control or stability shoe. Under-pronators wear down the outside of the shoe and need a neutral or extra-cushioning shoe.
  • Get new shoes
    Replace your shoes every 500 miles to maintain continued structural integrity of the shoe and its support to your foot and ankle.

Finally, if you are experiencing any pain during running, it may point to a more serious problem. Plan to visit an orthopaedic specialist.

woman thiathlete

What should I wear?

If you’re just getting started, you don’t need to buy expensive fancy running clothing. Just wear comfortable clothes that you would workout in.

Don’t wear cotton T-shirts and shorts. Cotton retains moisture and doesn’t allow your body to properly regulate temperature. You’ll freeze in the winter and overheat in the summer. Go for synthetic fabrics instead (try CoolMax or Dri-Fit).
Be careful not to overdress. Extra body heat will make you feel 15-20 degrees warmer when you’re running. If it’s above 55 degrees outside, you’ll probably be fine wearing a t-shirt and shorts.

For hot weather


  • Light-colored, loose-fitting clothes
  • Running sunglasses help protect your eyes from the sun’s damaging rays
  • Sunscreen (at least SPF 15)
  • Wear a visor, not a hat
  • Don’t forget to bring a water bottle

For cold and rainy weather:

  • Wicking base layer. Try DryFit, Thinsulate, Thermax, CoolMax, polypropylene, or silk. This will wick the sweat away from your body, keeping you dry and warm.
  • Insulating layer for very cold weather. This layer must continue wicking moisture away from the skin, keep you warm and help avoid overheating. Try Akwatek, Dryline, Polartec, polyester fleece, Microfleece, Thermafleece and Thermax.
  • Wind- and waterproof outer layer. This layer should protect you against wind and moisture (rain, sleet, snow), but at the same time allow both heat and moisture to escape to prevent overheating or freezing. Try ClimaFit, Gore-Tex, Microsuplex, nylon, Supplex, and Windstopper.
  • Gloves/Mittens. You can lose as much as 30% of your body heat through your extremities.
  • Tights/running pants. Go for synthetic material like Thermion, Thinsulate, Thermax, Coolmax, polypropylene, and/or silk. If it’s below 10 degrees F (temperature or wind chill), you can wear a wicking layer of tights and a windproof layer such as track pants.
  • A fleece or wool hat. Wear a hat with a brim on a rainy day.
  • A neck gaiter or bandana on a frigid, windy day to protect your neck and face. You can also use a ski mask.
  • Chapstick or vaseline to protect your lips (nose, cheeks) from windburn and chapping.

Be visible! Select outer layers that are very bright or light-colored and have reflective strips, since running in the rain often means poor visibility.
Protect your electronics from getting wet in a Ziplock bag or a waterproof carrier.

How do I get started with running?

  • First, make sure you can walk 3km in 30 minutes. Download an app like Runtastic, RunKeeper or Endomondo or one of the many other tracking-apps and go for a 30-minute walk along a reasonably flat path or road you like, then look at how far you got.
  • Second, make sure to talk to your doctor about your plans if you haven’t exercised in a long time or have health problems.
  • Third, run on soft surfaces like grass or sand if you can. This will help protect your joints, which is especially important when you’re just getting started.
  • Fourth, figure out what your goals are. Do you want to lose weight, run a marathon, or just blow off some steam and get in better shape?

What should I eat before running?

If you just had a large meal, wait 3-4 hours for your food to fully digest before going for a run. A couple of hours should be enough after a light snack. Avoid fatty or high fiber foods – they take longer to digest.


Scientists recommend 150-220 calorie, low glycemic index snacks to improve your running endurance:

  • Banana and a small handful of cashews
  • Whole grain crackers and hummus
  • Small bowl of cereal
  • Half a fruit-and-nut bar
  • Cheese stick and carrots
  • Vegetables, including leafy greens, asparagus, cauliflower
  • Quinoa
  • Reduced-fat yogurt

How and why I should warm up before a run?

If you don’t warm up properly, you run the risk of pulling a muscle, twisting your ankle, and other injuries. A good warmup gradually and gently brings up your heart rate and makes it easier to get into the rhythm you want to sustain.
Start your run by walking for 3-5 minutes. Walking is especially helpful for runners who are coming back after an injury. Then, add five to six 100-meter strides to help your body transition from walking to running mode.


Here’s how to do them:

  • Jog easy for at least two minutes—preferably more.
  • Gradually accelerate over the course of 60 to 100 meters, then gradually decelerate.
  • After each stride, walk around and shake out your legs for 90 seconds.
  • Then stride back in the opposite direction.
  • Strides should not be timed, and the exact distance of each stride is not critical.

Be sure to keep your steps short and quick, keeping your feet and legs underneath your torso. Do dynamic stretches: skipping, side step/shuffle, weave step (also known as “the grapevine”), backward jogging, and butt kicks.

The best long distance running techniques?

Here are some tips to keep you focused and injury-free:

  • Keep your front leg landing right under your center of gravity.
  • Landing on your mid-foot will reduce chances of joint pain after running on a hard surface.
  • Do not over-stride, changing the foot landing from heel to mid-foot.
  • Keep your head upright, shoulders square, chest lifted, and arms swinging closely to your body. Your head, spine and hips must be in line with the point of contact of your foot.
  • Run tall and look straight ahead to the horizon. Lean your body forward slightly.
  • Don’t forget to breathe through your nose. Take long, deep breaths.

Think of a reason to run and keep it in mind when running.

The negative consequences of running?

Running is good and healthy for most people. However, it’s important to run correctly in order to avoid injury – tearing ligaments or tendons, damaging joints, and so on.
Additionally, incorrect weight distribution can put too much pressure on the spine, resulting in back pain. If you plan to do a lot of running, make sure you’re using the right technique.


Medical Coordinator to the Boston Athletic Association Chris Troyanos warns that running is not necessarily good for everyone.
Here are some examples:

  • Overweight people have a higher risk of running-related injuries.
  • People with asthma should check with their doctor before taking up running and keep an inhaler on hand just in case.
  • Overpronators have a higher risk of running-related injury because overpronation puts a lot of stress on the feet and knees. Make sure you have the right running shoes.
  • People with hyperextended knees can also run into trouble. Start with a walking program and work up to running gradually to avoid injury.
  • Running makes for great rehabilitation for people with heart disease, but it’s important to stick to your target heart rate.

Finally, it’s important to listen to your body. If you start feeling knee pain when you go from 5 to 7 miles a day, that could be your threshold. If you have any type of pain or discomfort in your legs and back, stop running, use myofascial release therapy and make an appointment to see your doctor.

Why is running so hard?

It can be difficult to make running into a habit, especially if you never exercised regularly before. If you’re having a really hard time, here are some things to pay attention to:

  • Don’t avoid warming up before running
  • Don’t eat heavy meals, avoid it at least 3-4 hours before running
  • Your running style can be wrong. The right techniques let you avoid excessive workload and injures. Think about your posture and leg motion, cadence, upper body/lower body coordination, breathing habits and proper bend in your knees and elbows.
  • Don’t try running too hard. Your distance and speed should depend on your level of health and fitness.
  • When you’re starting your run, just jog. Don’t run too fast until you’ve reached your target heart rate
  • Take deep, slow breaths. You need to be working hard and feel tired when you’re running, but you should still be able to speak a few words at a time in between breaths.
  • When you do feel winded, slow down to a jog until your body feels better and don’t stop until you’ve reached your goal.

How do I calculate my target heart rate?

Your maximum heart rate can be estimated with this formula: max heart rate = 220 – your age.
When you run, your target heart rate should vary depending on what you want to get out of your workout:

  • Training at 50-60% of this intensity will boost your recovery and get you ready to train at higher heart rates
  • Training at 60-70% improves your general endurance
  • Train at 70-80% to improve the efficiency of blood circulation in the heart and skeletal muscles
  • To improve your speed endurance, run at 80-90% of your maximum heart rate
  • 90-100% of max heart rate is when your heart and respiratory system are working at their maximal capacity

The best way to track heart rate is with fitness trackers that have built-in optical heart rate monitors:

How do I measure my running effort?

Check your heart rate for one minute in the morning before you get out of bed. As you get fitter, your resting heart rate will get lower. This happens because your heart gets stronger, which means it doesn’t take as many beats to pump the blood your body needs.

The best way to track your progress is with fitness trackers that have built-in optical heart rate monitors. Many of them also have GPS, can count steps, distance and lap time.

You can also try apps like RunkeeperRuntasticStravaGoogle FitMoves. They will help you monitor your physical activity by tracking steps, distance, and more.
Make sure to use the Welltory app to check your stress and energy levels and heart rate every morning.

two people running in the forest

How do I measure my running effort?

Proper recovery is absolutely necessary if you want to maximize workout efficiency and avoid injury.
Follow these steps:

1. Hydrate as soon as possible after your run with an electrolyte drink. Check your weight before and after running, then drink 150 ml of fluid for each 100g lost.

2. Roll out muscles with a muscle roller or a tennis/lacrosse ball.

3. Jog to cool down and stretch major muscles thoroughly.

4. Take an ice bath.

5. Eat a healthy meal, ideally within 30 minutes after running

6. Sufficient sleep will help you recover. Track your sleep and use the Welltory app to understand how much sleep you need to recover.

7. Avoid caffeine and caffeinated drinks for 2 hours after running.

What can I do to increase my running stamina and strength?

Be patient. To improve your running stamina, you need to keep running and keep trying gradually. Here are some tips to keep in mind:

  • Run as long as you can at your preferred pace the first week, then increase your pace or distance by 10% per week.
  • Do not run without a good warm-up. Stretch your muscles with dynamic stretching exercises to warm up your body before a run.
  • Interval training (high-intensity interval training) is used to improve your aerobic capacity and involves alternating your running pace and style. For example, run as fast as you can for 30 seconds and then slow down to 75% for another 2 minutes. The entire session may last between four and thirty minutes.
  • Pool running and cycling challenge your body in similar ways to running and can greatly enhance your training efforts and increase endurance with very little risk of injury.
  • Eat food with low glycemic index 2 to 3 hours before a run.
  • Music will help you keep moving to run an extra mile or two. Make a playlist with songs that make you move.
  • Sufficient sleep before a run will improve your endurance. Make sure to use the Welltory app every morning to understand how much sleep you need

How long should I run to increase my cardiovascular endurance?

The US Department of Health and Human Services recommends 75 – 150 min per week of vigorous aerobic physical activity like running, performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes 3-5 times a week. To improve your cardiovascular endurance, run at 70-80% of your maximum heart rate (220 – your age).

How to prepare for a marathon?

Running a marathon is always a personal challenge, so here are some tips to help you out:

  • Give yourself plenty of time to accomplish your goals. Set aside 16 to 20 weeks to train for a marathon.
  • Schedule running one long run a week and start with 10-11 miles.
  • Run 3-5 times per week.
  • Alternate long runs with short (3 or 4 miles) or medium (7 or 8 miles) runs.
  • Do no more than 40 percent of your peak weekly mileage.
  • During the last three days, concentrate on eating carbohydrate-rich foods, such as pasta, potatoes, bread, fruit and fruit juice, and sports drinks.
  • Eat a 150 – 220 calorie snack with low glycemic index 2 -3 hours before you run.
  • Drink water with lemon and honey and eat banana 30 minutes before you run.
  • Jog lightly for 10 minutes, finishing about 15 minutes before the start of a long run. Precede and follow your jog by stretching your muscles gently.
  • Keep in mind that marathon running can have a cardiotoxic effect. Make sure to consult your doctor before running a marathon and give priority to distance rather than speed.

Welltory Team, 23 Dec. 2021

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